How to Read in English

English phonetic symbols: here

The alphabet: here

Vowels: 

/ɪ/ pit, kiss, miss, sit, kit, lit, hip

 

// meet, tree, knee, see, sea, read

 

/ʊ/ book, brook, hook, good, goodness, wool

 

// blue, glue, moose, goose, cool, hoop

 

/ɒ/ hot, not, pot, lot, spot, stop

 

/ɔː/ sport, war, more, straw, explore /ɪkˈsplɔː(r)/, door

 

/ɜː/ hurt, bird, stir, dirt, dirty /ˈdɜː(r)ti/, her

 

/ʌ/ hut, but, sun, love /lʌv/, dove, begun /bɪˈɡʌn/

 

/ɑː/ bar, star, car, guitar /ɡɪˈtɑː(r)/, cigar /sɪˈɡɑː(r)/, tar

 

/æ/ man, lap, hat, map, lamp, stamp

 

/e/ men, step, let, met, wet, regret /rɪˈɡret/

 

/ə/ forget /fə(r)ˈɡet/, doctor /ˈdɒktə(r)/, gardener/ˈɡɑː(r)d(ə)nə(r)/, sportsman

/ˈspɔː(r)tsmən/, sister/ˈsɪstə(r)/, uncle/ˈʌŋk(ə)l/

 

Diphthongs: 

/ɪə/ here, beer, deer, steer, weird, pier

 

// day, May, stay, game, lame, sake

 

// my, cry, lie, smile, pile, style

 

/ɔɪ/ boy, toy, joy, ointment /ˈɔɪntmənt/, oyster /ˈɔɪstə(r)/, oil

 

/əʊ/ go, no, bow, low, stow, dough

 

// vow, how, bow, now, meow /mjaʊ/, plough

 

// air, hair, wear, stare, hare, glare

 

/ʊə/ tour, tournament /ˈtʊə(r)nəmənt/, cure/kjʊə(r)/, pure, allure /əˈlʊə(r)/, sure

 

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Consonants: 

/r/ rate /reɪt/, rat /ræt/, room /ruːm/, rest /rest/, restroom /ˈrestˌruːm/, teacher /ˈtiːtʃə(r)/

 

/l/ lion /ˈlaɪən/, love /lʌv/, wool /wʊl/, mill /mɪl/, mile /maɪl/, will /wɪl/

 

/p/ pig /pɪɡ/, parrot /ˈpærət/, pesticide /ˈpestɪsaɪd/, parasite /ˈpærəsaɪt/, nap /næp/, cap

/kæp/

 

/b/ best /best/, baby /ˈbeɪbi/, noble /ˈnəʊb(ə)l/, nibble /ˈnɪb(ə)l/, bill /bɪl/, Bible /ˈbaɪb(ə)l/

 

/f/ five /faɪv/, fast /fɑːst/, festival /ˈfestɪv(ə)l/, photo /ˈfəʊtəʊ/, photograph /ˈfəʊtəˌɡrɑːf/,

photographer /fəˈtɒɡrəfə(r)/

 

/v/vest /vest/, vase /vɑːz/, marvel /ˈmɑː(r)v(ə)l/, marvelous /ˈmɑː(r)vələs/, violin /ˌvaɪəˈlɪn/, vine /vaɪn/

 

/w/wine /waɪn/, west /west/, window /ˈwɪndəʊ/, where /weə(r)/, why /waɪ/, nowhere

/ˈnəʊweə(r)/

 

// teacher /ˈtiːtʃə(r)/, church /tʃɜː(r)tʃ/, cherry /ˈtʃeri/, child /tʃaɪld/, chest /tʃest/, cheese

/tʃiːz/

 

//judge/dʒʌdʒ/, jam /dʒæm/, jeep /dʒiːp/, jeans /dʒiːnz/, justice /ˈdʒʌstɪs/, major

/ˈmeɪdʒə(r)/

 

/ʃ/short /ʃɔː(r)t/, share /ʃeə(r)/, mush /mʌʃ/, she /ʃɪ/, sheep /ʃiːp/, ship /ʃɪp/ 

 

/ʒ/ casual /ˈkæʒuəl/, measure /ˈmeʒə(r)/, pleasure /ˈpleʒə(r)/, azure /ˈæʒə(r)/, vision

/ˈvɪʒ(ə)n/

 

/ð/ mother /ˈmʌðə(r)/, weather /ˈweðə(r)/, father /ˈfɑːðə(r)/, brother /ˈbrʌðə(r)/, there

/ðeə(r)/, clothes /kləʊðz/

 

/θ/thick /θɪk/, thin /θɪn/, north /nɔː(r)θ/, both /bəʊθ/, moth /mɒθ/, forth /fɔː(r)θ/

 

/s/ sun /sʌn/, son /sʌn/, same /seɪm/, sick /sɪk/, west /west/, simmer /ˈsɪmə(r)/

 

/z/ zoo /zuː/, zebra /ˈzebrə/, nose /nəʊz/, hose /həʊz/, chose /tʃəʊz/, clothes /kləʊðz/

 

/j/ yes /jes/, yeah /jeə/, yoghurt /ˈjɒɡə(r)t/, you //, your /jɔː(r)/, yield /jiːld/

 

/ŋ/ long/lɒŋ/, song /sɒŋ/, singer /ˈsɪŋə(r)/, gong /ɡɒŋ/, strong /strɒŋ/, uncle /ˈʌŋk(ə)l/

 

/n/ north /nɔː(r)θ/, gardener /ˈɡɑː(r)d(ə)nə(r)/, begun /bɪˈɡʌn/, know /nəʊ/, knee /niː/, knight /naɪt/

 

/m/ map /mæp/, mad /mæd/, dam /dæm/, milk /mɪlk/, mock /mɒk/, mist /mɪst/

 

/k/ cat /kæt/, can /kæn/, mock /mɒk/, chemist /ˈkemɪst/, chemistry /ˈkemɪstri/, chemical

/ˈkemɪk(ə)l/

 

/g/ goat /ɡəʊt/, guest /ɡest/, gong /ɡɒŋ/, mug /mʌɡ/, vague /veɪɡ/, plague /pleɪɡ/

 

/h/ horse /hɔː(r)s/, hair /heə(r)/, house /haʊs/, hello /həˈləʊ/, hi /haɪ/, here /hɪə(r)/

 

/t/ toast /təʊst/, tier /tɪə(r)/, tire /ˈtaɪə(r)/, tyre /ˈtaɪə(r)/, mat /mæt/, met /met/

 

/d/ dirt /dɜː(r)t/, dirty /ˈdɜː(r)ti/, mud /mʌd/, muddy /ˈmʌdi/, mad /mæd/, dam /dæm/

 

Listen to the recording and read the text:

 

We are best friends!

Clarissa Hanson and Martin Dolan are best friends. Read our interview /ˈɪntə(r)ˌvjuː/ with them.

– How old are you?

Clarissa: He’s twenty three and I’m… over sixty.

– What do you do?

Martin: I’m an accountant /əˈkaʊntənt/ and she’s an actress. We’re best friends.

– How are you the same?

Clarissa: We’re the same in a lot of ways. We like good conversation /ˌkɒnvə(r)ˈseɪʃ(ə)n/, good food, good films. We’re not rich but we’re not poor /pʊə(r)/.

Martin: We’re quite intelligent /ɪnˈtelɪdʒ(ə)nt/. We like galleries, museums, that kind of thing.

– How are you different?

Martin: I’m young and Clarissa is…

Clarissa: …I’m young at heart!

pexels-photo-863912

Stay young at heart!

2 thoughts on “How to Read in English

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