Countries & Nationalities

Countries & Nationalities

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Countries, nationalities and languages begin with capital letters.

The word for the language and the word for the nationality are usually the same:

He is Czech /ek/. He speaks Czech.

Sometimes they are different:

They are Mexican. They speak Spanish.

To talk about people from a country, we often add s to the nationality:

Italians, Brazilians, Thais, Greeks, Russians etc.

Some plural forms are irregular:

the British, the French, the English, the Spanish, the Chinese, the Japanese, the Portuguese, the Swiss.


Approximately 330-360 million people speak English as their first language. There are 6 large countries with a majority of native English speakers: the United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Canada, Australia, Ireland and New Zealand.

The 4 largest English-speaking countries are:

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(Great) Britain = England, Wales and Scotland

The United Kingdom/The UK = England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland

Only people from England are English. People from Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are not English, but they are British.

The most populous cities: London /ˌlʌndən/, Birmingham /ˈbɜːmɪŋəm/, Manchester /ˈmæntʃɪstə/.


The United States of America (the USA) consists of 50 states and a federal district (Washington, D.C., the capital of the USA). D.C. = District of Columbia. The most populous cities: New York City /njuː jɔːk ˈsɪtɪ/, Los Angeles /lɒs ˈændʒɪˌliːz/, Chicago /ʃɪˈkɑːɡəʊ/.


Canada consists of 10 provinces and 3 territories.

The territories are Nunavut (ˈnuːnəˌvuːt), Northwest Territories and Yukon (ˈjuːkɒn ) Territory.

The most populous cities: Toronto /təˈrɒntəʊ/, Montreal /mɒntrɪˈɔːl/, Vancouver /vænˈkuːvə/.


Australia consists of 6 states (New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia) and 10 federal territories.

The most populous cities: Sydney /ˈsɪdnɪ/, Brisbane /ˈbrɪzbən/, Melbourne /ˈmɛlbən/.


Where are these places? Click on the photos…

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