Singular & Plural, Countable & Uncountable Nouns

A noun is a person, a place or a thing:

A teacher, a city, a table, Monday, June, London, America

Singular /ˈsɪŋɡjʊlə(r)/ Plural /ˈplʊərəl/
a/one banana two banana
an/one egg two eggs
an/one apple a kilo of apples
a/one baby two babies
a/one dress three dresses



Nouns that end in Plural
s, ss, sh, ch, x + potato, tomato… + -es busses, classes, dishes, watches, boxes, potatoes, tomatoes, heroes, torpedoes
consonant + y  change y to i + –es families, babies, countries, cities (BUT boys, toys – vowel +y)
f, fe change f to y + -es wives, wolves, knives


  • man /mæn– me/men/
  • woman /ˈwʊmən– women /ˈwɪmɪn/
  • child – children
  • tooth – teeth
  • foot – feet
  • person – people
  • sheep – sheep
  • fish – fish/fishes
  • mouse – mice
  • goose – geese
  • louse – lice
  • deer – deer

These nouns are not the only irregular nouns, but they are probably the most common irregular ones.


  • clothes
  • jeans
  • shorts
  • glasses / spectacles (formal)
  • sunglasses
  • scissors
  • trousers (British English) / pants (American English)
  • thanks

We can say:

A pair of jeans / shorts / trousers (pants) / scissors.

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*countable = count /kaʊnt/ + able (= can)

Countable nouns are things that we can count:

This is a pen. Do you like apples?


Uncountable nouns are things that we cannot count:

I like this water.

This oil is very good.

I need love.

Our friendship is great.

Uncountable nouns often have some in front of them:

We need some bread.

Listen to some music.


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Some common uncountable nouns are:

  • food: sugar, salt, meat
  • materials: meat, wood, plastic
  • school subjects and languages: history, art, English
  • ideas and feelings: advice, time, information, love
  • groups of similar things: furniture, luggage / baggage (mainly American English), money

Some nouns can be both countable and uncountable:

I like coffee (drink). Two coffees please (cups of coffee).

Healthy food is important. (things that we eat) You can’t eat some foods (some types of food).

Eat fruit and vegetables (fruit as food). These fruits are very healthy (types of fruit).

Chicken is tasty (food). My aunt has 20 chickens on her farm (birds).

Swiss chocolate is very good (food). Take a chocolate (one sweet).

We use paper (material). I read a paper (a newspaper).

I know some Russians (people). I speak Russian (language).

We “count” uncountable nouns like this:

Units Containers Measurements /ˈmeʒə(r)mənts/
a piece of cheese/cake

a piece of paper/luggage/furniture

a bit of information

a bar of chocolate/soap

a slice of bread/toast/pizza

a loaf of bread

a carton of juice/milk

a can/tin (British English) of beer/tuna

a glass of juice

a cup of tea

a box of chocolates

a bottle of wine

a tube of toothpaste

a liter/litre (British English) of milk

half a kilo of salt

two meters of silk